What does FODMAPS stand for?

Who invented the FODMAPS?
The low FODMAP diet was developed in 1999 as an effective way of relieving the symptoms of IBS. The low FODMAP’s diet has been published in many medical journals and is now renowned as being one of the most successful dietary therapies to relieve symptoms of IBS.

Where are FODMAPS found?
Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides are molecules found in some foods that people can find hard to digest. The small intestine is where most of the absorption of food takes place. When the small intestine cannot properly absorb these molecules, they continue their way down the digestive tract and into the large intestine. These molecules, then act as a food source to bacteria. The ‘bad’ bacteria ferment these molecules and can cause irritation and dysbiosis in the gut.

Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
-Abdominal bloating
-Excess wind (flatulence)
-Abdominal pain
-Changes in bowel habits (diarrhoea, constipation, or a combination of both)
-Other gastro-intestinal symptoms.

A few examples of food sources for each of the FODMAPs are listed below:

Excess Fructose:Fructans:Lactose:Galacto-Oligosaccharides:Polyols:
ŸHigh Fructose ŸCorn Syrup
ŸCorn Syrup ŸSolids
ŸDandelion leaves
ŸGarlic (in large amounts)
ŸOnion (brown, white, Spanish, onion powder)
ŸRadicchio lettuce
ŸSpring Onion
ŸWheat (in large amounts)
ŸRye (in large amounts)
ŸDairy deserts
ŸCondensed and evaporated milk
ŸMilk powder
ŸSoft unripened cheeses (eg. ricotta, cottage, cream, mascarpone).
ŸLegume beans (eg. baked beans, kidney beans, bortolotti beans)

What Is Lactose?
Lactose is the sugar that is found in milk products from any mammal.  It is a double-sugar made up of two smaller sugars (glucose and galactose).

What is Lactose-Intolerance?
Normally, lactose is broken down to these two smaller sugars by the enzyme, lactase.  Lactase is produced by the villi that line our small intestine, however the production of lactase can be temporarily decreased by damage to the small intestine, such as the result of a gastro infection.  Our production of lactase can also gradually decrease as we get older.  In this situation, such people have a lactase insufficiency and therefore permanent lactose intolerance.  Most people still produce a small amount of lactase.
Without enough lactase enzymes, the lactose sugar is not digested normally in the small intestine.  Instead, it passes to the large intestine where it is fermented by bacteria.  This fermentation can cause the common symptoms include diarrhoea or loose motions, wind and abdominal bloating and discomfort.

What Can I Eat on a Lactose-Free Diet?
The degree and severity of symptoms depends on the level of lactase insufficiency.  If you are still producing some lactase enzyme, you can still continue to include lactose in small amounts in the diet as tolerated. For example, milk in tea and coffee throughout the day may be tolerated; however to drink a full glass of milk would cause symptoms.  This is because the body can often be producing very small amounts
of the lactase enzyme, however not enough to cope with a large load of lactose at once.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
You have been diagnosed with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and you are probably wondering whether food plays a role. The answer could be yes or no. For some people, a change in the food they eat may help their IBS, whilst for others it will make no difference. The key things to keep in mind are:
1. With any change in your eating, you need to make sure that you have a balanced diet, and
2. If the change in eating makes no change to the IBS, add those foods back into your diet. There is no point avoiding foods unnecessarily.

I have trialled eliminating some foods from my diet, what do I do now?
If you have tried the changes and know that there is some improvement but you find it difficult to follow or are unsure which foods cut out really made the difference, then a dietitian may be able to help.
If these changes made no difference at all, then you can confidently reintroduce foods, and start to look at other things that may be upsetting your bowel eg stress, work, and family. Your doctor will be able to point you in the right direction for help.
will describe which of the test sugars (Fructose, Sorbitol, Lactose or Glucose – or any combination of these) you are to do. However, a practice test, (a Lactulose test) must be performed prior to any of these test sugars, to make sure you produce enough hydrogen gas. If you are a low- or non-hydrogen producer with Lactulose, you will be changed from the breathalyser device to inflatable bags during the course of your test as these bags allow us to also measure methane gas. This will ensure that we capture whichever type of gas (hydrogen or methane) you produce.

How carbohydrates work:
Carbohydrates are important food sources of energy. The major sources of dietary carbohydrates are the starches and disaccharides. In the course of digestion, these are hydrolyzed by specific glycosidases to their component monosaccharide’s, which are absorbed into the circulation from the intestine. The monosaccharide’s are then transported to the cells of various tissues, passing through the cells’ outer membrane by facilitated transport by the way of transporters. Glucose is transported into the cells of many different tissues by the GLUT family of transporters